Friday, 1 February 2013

Maharana Pratap - The Brave Warrior

Born: May 9, 1540
Died: January 19, 1597

A Brief Introduction: 
Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap (also known as Rana Pratap) was a ruler of Mewar, a state in north-western India. He belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs.

Rana Pratap was born at Kumbhalgarh on Sunday the May 9, 1540 to Maharana Udai Singh II and Maharani Javanta Bai Songara (Chauhan).some historians believe it to be “Juni Kacheri” near Pali District.Pratap was eldest of 25 brothers and 20 sisters.

Maharana Pratap got married to Ajabade(daughter of Rao Ram Rakh Panwar), at the age of 17 and were soon blessed by a son named Amar Singh.Rana Pratap had 17 sons and five daughters.

Coronation of Maharana Pratap:

 Coronation of Maharana Pratap
Maharana Udai Singh II died at the early age of 42 in “Gogunda”, leaving behind twenty-five sons. Setting aside the established laws of “Primogenitor”, he proclaimed his favorite son “Jagmal” his successor,but his senior nobles wanted Pratap, the eldest son, to be their king. 

During the coronation ceremony Jagmal was physically moved out of the palace and Pratap was made the 54th king in the lineage of Sisodia Rajputs. Pratap did not want to go against the wishes of his father but Rajput nobles convinced him that Jagmal was not fit to rule in the troubled times of the day. It was the beginning of a career of struggle and hardship.

Painting of Maharana Pratap
Chittorgarh (Chittor fort), Pratap's ancestral home, was under Mughal occupation. Living a life on the run, the dream of reconquering Chittor (and thus reclaiming the glory of Mewar) was greatly cherished by Pratap, and his future efforts were bent towards this goal.

Nearly all of Pratap's fellow Rajput chiefs had meanwhile entered into the vassalage of the Mughals. Even Pratap's own brothers, Shakti Singh and Sagar Singh, were serving Akbar. Indeed, many Rajput chiefs, such as Raja Man Singh of Amber (later known as Jaipur) were serving as army commanders in Akbar's armies and members of his council.

Akbar sent a total of six diplomatic missions to Pratap, seeking to negotiate the same sort of peaceful alliance that he had concluded with the other Rajput chiefs. Pratap roundly rebuffed every such attempt.

For the new capital-Udaipur, Maharana Udai Singh constructed a water reservoir–Udai Sagar in 1565. It was on its dam that in June 1573 Kunwar(Prince) Man Singh of Amber, as the emissary of Mughal Emperor Akbar, arrogantly demanded that Maharana Pratap should give up protocol and be present at the feast in his honour.

Pratap and Man Singh were of the same age, both were born on May 9, 1540, but one was king while the other a prince. Pratap, following the protocol, sent his son Kunwar Amar Singh to dine with Kunwar Man Singh Akbar's special envoy.This incident precipitated the Mughal-Mewar conflict.

(Man Singh was a Kunwar, his father Raja Bhagwan Das led another unsuccessful peace mission to Maharana Pratap in October 1573 at which Maharana Pratap was personally present).

Raja Bhagwan Das and Kunwar Man Singh won Kashmir for Mughals in 1586, that is Man Singh was NOT the Raja of Amber, later Jaipur, till 1586. Man Singh was confied the title of Mirza Raja in 1590.

 Also read: Rana Sanga - The Greatest King of Mewar (Recommended)

Battle Of Haldighati:
Battle of Haldighati
On June 21, 1576 (June 18 by other calculations), the two armies met at Haldighati, near the town of Gogunda in present-day Rajasthan. While accounts vary as to the exact strength of the two armies, all sources concur that the mughal forces greatly outnumbered Pratap's men.

Maharana Pratap Attacking on Man Singh
Pratap Attaking On Man Singh
The battle of Haldighati, a historic event in the annals of Rajputana, lasted only four hours. In this short period, Pratap's men essayed many brave exploits on the field. Folklore has it that Pratap personally attacked Man Singh: his horse Chetak placed its front feet on the trunk of Man Singh's elephant and Pratap threw his lance; Man Singh ducked, and the elephant driver was killed.

However, the numerical superiority of the Mughal army and their artillery finally began to tell. Seeing that the battle was lost, Pratap's generals prevailed upon him to flee the field so as to be able to fight another day. To facilitate Pratap's escape, one of his lieutenants, a member of the Jhala clan, donned Pratap's distinctive garments and took his place in the battlefield. He was soon killed. Meanwhile, riding his trusty steed Chetak, Pratap made good his escape to the hills. 

Brave Chetak's Death.
Picture Showing Brave Chetak's Death.

But Chetak was critically wounded on his left thigh by a Mardana (Elephant Trunk Sword) while Pratap had attempted to nail down Man Singh. Chetak was bleeding heavily and he collapsed after jumping over a small brook few kilometers away from the battle field. 

Chetak's death
While Pratap’s General donned Pratap’s clothing and armour, it went unnoticed thanks to the chaos of the war but for two Turkic people| Turk knights from the Mughal army. They could not communicate it with others in their group, due to linguistic barrier (the appropriate language would have been Persian, Marwari or Arabi). 

They immediately followed Pratap without wasting time. The moment they started chasing him Pratap’s younger brother Shaktisingh who was fighting from the Mughal side (he had some disputes with Pratap at the time of Pratap’s coronation; hence he had defected and gone over to Akbar’s court) realized that his own brother was under threat. 

Prataps' general's sacrifice had already been discovered by him. He could not help but react against a threat to his own brother. He followed the Turks, engaged them in single combat and killed them. In the meanwhile,Chetak collapsed and Pratap saw his brother Shakti Singh killing the two Mughal riders. 

Saddned by the loss of his beloved general and horse, he embraced his brother and broke into tears. Shaktisingh also cried and asked for his brother's pardon, for having fought as his enemy. Pratap pardoned him (later on he was given a huge estate near Chittor). Shaktisingh them offered him his own horse and requested him to get to a safe place. This incident is famous in Rajasthani folklore, a song “O Neele Ghode re Aswar” (O Rider of the Blue Horse) mentions it.
A mausoleum to Chetak
"A mausoleum to Chetak’ is at the site of the steed's death."
The impact of the battle on the Mughal army was also significant. In terms of numbers the Mughal army suffered heavier losses. This was also because of the intensive arrow showers by the Bhil tribes of the surrounding mountains who had aided with Pratap. To honour their contribution, a Bhil warrior was placed next to Pratap in the Royal Coat of Arms of Mewar. 
Maharana Pratap With His Generals
Maharana Pratap With His Generals

The battle of Haldighat is considered to be the first Major breakthrough of Rajputs aginst the Mughals since the Second Battle of Khanwa in 1527, which was fought between Rana Sanga great grand uncle of Maharana Pratap, and the Mughal Babur. It is regarded with a degree of significance by many Rajput families.

"To save the honor of their land against the mighty Mughal army with the strength of Two Lakh soldiers. There stood the only Twenty Two thousand soldiers for the defense of Haldighati and only eight thousand quitted the field alive."

Also read: Ashoka The Great.


Maharana Pratap at the Battle of Haldighati
Pratap retreated into the hilly wilderness of the Aravallis and continued his struggle. His one attempt at open confrontation having thus failed, Pratap resumed the tactics of guerilla warfare. Using the hills as his base, Pratap harassed the large and therefore awkward Mughal forces in their encampments.

He ensured that the Mughal occupying force in Mewar never knew peace: Akbar despatched three more expeditions to ferret Pratap out of his mountainous hideouts, but they all failed. During this era, Pratap received much financial assistance from Bhamashah, a well-wisher. 

The Bhil tribals of the Aravalli hills provided Pratap with their support during times of war and their expertise in living off the forests during times of peace. Thus the years passed. As James Tod writes: "There is not a pass in the alpine Aravalli that is not sanctified by some deed of the great freedom fighter, Maharana Pratap Singh; some brilliant victory or, more often, some glorious defeat." 

On one occasion, the Bhils saved the Rajput women and children in the nick of time by conveying them into the depths of the mines at Zawar. Later, Pratap relocated to Chavand in the mountainous southeastern area of Mewar. Still harassed by the Mughals, the exiles survived in those ravines for many years by subsisted on wild berries and by hunting and fishing.

The Turn around:

Maharana Pratap killing his enemy
The turning point again came in 1582 when Rana Pratap Inflicted a crushing defeat to the Mughal army in Dewair( the northern entry point of Mewar connecting Marwar, Gujarat, Malwa and Ajmer). From this battle onwards Rana Pratap moved from being defensive to Offensive and in a very short time he regained all the lost land of Mewar except Ajmer and Chittor.

Also read: Prithviraj Chauhan.

Akbar's Expeditions:

Akbar kept sending expedition after expedition against Maharana Pratap but never succeeded. He lost lot of money and men in trying to defeat Maharana Pratap. For 30 years Pratap remained ahead of Akbar and in last ten years of his life was able to free most of his kingdom. The only fort Pratap could not recover was Chittor and that saddened him a lot. His son, Amar Singh, won that fort after Pratap's death.

Maharana Pratap on ChetakLast Days:

Maharana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident. He died at Chavand, on January 19, 1597, aged fifty-six. It is said that as he lay dying, Pratap made his son and successor, Amar Singh, swear to maintain eternal conflict against the Mughals. Thus, his strained circumstances did not overpower Pratap even in his declining years; he remained intrepid to the end. 

He also did not sleep on a bed because of a vow he took that until Chittor was freed he will sleep on the floor and live in a hut despite the fact that he had reconquered almost his entire kingdom back from Akbar.

Maharana Pratap is a great hero in the eyes of Indians, much respected and loved by his people. During a dark chapter of Hindu history, Pratap alone stood firmly for his honor and dignity; he never compromised his honor for safety. He died a proud and free man.

"Maharana Pratap’s arch foe Mogul Emperor Akbar is believed to have shed tears at end of this brave warrior, because he was the only ruler who refused to compromise his honor for comfort & safety and, in the end, he died a proud and free king."

Maharana Pratap was affectionately called “KIKA” especially by the tribal’s and the poets.

Maharana Pratap Statue With Chetak At Museum
Maharana Pratap Statue With Chetak At Museum
Before the Battle of Haldighati started, Man Singh Kacchwaha was out hunting with a few hundred retainers. Pratap's Bhil spies reported this to him at his camp a few kilometers away. Some of Pratap's nobles suggested that they seize the opportunity to attack and kill Man Singh. Pratap refused, demonstrating his sense of rectitude.

In another incident, the womenfolk of Abdur Rahim Khankhana, a mughal officer, fell into the hands of Pratap's son Amar Singh. At this point of time, Khankhana was actually on the march against Pratap, and was camping at Sherpur in order to make preparations for an assault against Pratap. Nonwithstanding all this, Pratap commanded his son Amar Singh (eldest of 17 sons and 5 daughters) to arrange for the safe conveyance of the Mughal ladies to their camp.

Khankhana was so affected by this incident that he refused to campaign against such a chivalrous monarch. He petitioned Akbar to be relieved of his post and was subsequently (in 1581) appointed guardian of Akbar's own son, Salim. Also it is considered that the slogan " jo dridh rakhe dharm ne tahi rakhe kartar is given by abdul rahim khankhana who is also known "Rahim das" in Hindi poetry.

Also read: Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (HEMU) - One Of The Greatest Hindu Warrior - Recommended


Maharana Pratap Memorial(Moti Magari):

Maharana Pratap Memorial at Moti Magari
An impressive bronze statue of Maharana Pratap on his favorite horse Chetak, stands atop the Moti Magri (Pearl Mount) overlooking Fateh Sagar. Local people climb up the hill to pay homage to Rana Pratap and his faithful charger 'Chetak' who was fiercely protective about its master and stood by him till its last breath. This loyal steed sacrificed his life while carrying his master to safety from the battlefield of Haldighati.

Pictures Of Brave Maharana Pratap On Coins And Stamps:

Picture Of Maharana Pratap On Indian 1 Rupee Coin
Picture Of Maharana Pratap On 1 Rupee Coin
Maharana Pratap has always been held in great esteem in India and was projected as model of patriotism and freedom struggle against the British rule in India. The names Pratap and Chetak, his stallion, are very famous and the Government of Republic of India has issued commemorative Stamps (1967, 1998) and coins (2003) to honor this great Son of India.
Picture Of Maharana Pratap On Indian Post Stamp
Picture Of Maharana Pratap On Stamp

The grateful nation installed Pratap's Chetak-mounted statue along with those of his more renowned associates - Jhala Maan, Bhilu Raja (the tribal chief), Bhama Shah, Hakim Khan Soor and an attendant-foot-soldier in front of the Parliament House in New Delhi on August 21, 2007.

Statue of Maharana Pratap at Parliament House in New Delhi, India
Statue of Maharana Pratap at Parliament House in New Delhi, India

As per the demand of our users we have collected some facts about Maharana Pratap to know them:


Some Recommended Books About Maharana Pratap:


  1. Good information provided, it wud b great if u cud also provide Rana prataps Physical stat eg: height & information on his arms, armours etc

    1. Thank U , And thanks for your suggestion ,we will definitely try to add it ......

  2. Thanks a lot Amit for putting forward India's glorious History on the net. I was looking for information on proud son of India Maharana Pratap and found most details here. Thanks a lot for your service towards nation... Bharat Maa should bless you.

    1. Thank u Tarakeswar ...... friends like you support us to do better ...and our motive is to show the best and real face of India to young people and let them know about our brave warriors and intelligent peoples of History .....Jai Hind

  3. His Height was 7.5 Feet

    1. 7.5 feet height is very questionable....the general belief is that he was very muscled and strong but not that are better advised to research more before putting the height in article.

  4. could you plz give us the weight and details of arms that was used by great Maharana Pratap

  5. As per the demand of our users we have collected some facts about Maharana Pratap....

    Maharana Pratap's Height: 7ft 5 inches

    weight of Maharana Pratap Bhala - 80 Kg

    weight of Maharana Pratap’s Armor- 72 Kg

    weight of Maharana Pratap’s Shoe: 5 kg shoe each

    Weight of his two swords : 25kg each


    these are approximate details we have collected from various sites .... we hope this will help you ........

  6. Thank u for the article. It was indeed very interesting and motivating.
    A great example of courage and patriotism. The stories about the valor, spirit and honesty of such legends are the need of the hour.


  8. maharana pratap was chivalrious enough to face his enemy. this should be added to Indian history book syllabus as a lesson to make good citizens.

    1. This will not happen, since if the books are to be worked upon, there will be too many changes required and all the doctored history as is currently taught need to be taken off. It is not conducive to the prespent political dispensation.

  9. maharana pratap was chivalrious enough to face his enemy. this should be added to Indian history book syllabus as a lesson to make good citizens.

    1. i agree with you ........ it should be added.

  10. Proud to be rajput and every rajput will always remember great maharana Pratap hats offf

  11. maharana prataps epic should be added in the history book in detail so that today's generation should make him their idol and become a great freedom fighters.

  12. Maharana Pratap was greatest hero of rajputana. Thanks for sharing with us about this historical hero.

  13. I bow my head in the reverence of maharana pratap .it is todays need to become like maharana pratap to remove curruption

  14. I bow my head in the reverence of maharana pratap .it is todays need to become like maharana pratap to remove curruption

  15. Hi Amit... thanks for the article... i am a great fan of the true sons of India i.e. maharana pratap, shivaji raje, the tiger of mysore - tippu sultan etc.

    Can you please help me with the information on his education, his teachers etc

    1. ok i will try my best to help you ....
      keep visiting for updates...

    2. Tipu sultan's history as we know it is actually highly tampered and a lot of negative facts have not been narrated.

  16. Thnks buddy fr ur info . I was such desperate to know abt maharana pratap and ur article helpled me alot .

  17. Thanks for great info about real hero maharana jee
    Jai Maharana Pratap

  18. Great work, thus is what we call a true work of technology to spread proud of Mother India.

    Keep it up..!!!

  19. One of the things mentioned in the article is historically wrong. Rana Amar singh never won back chittor gadh...he got it back after concluding the peace treaty with Jehangir on condition that the fortifications are not repaired...that is the reason it was abandoned.

  20. I sincerely thanks you for such a great and informative article. I recently visited Udaipur and therefrom I went to Great Rana Pratap Museum and battlefield Haldighati. As I was reading your above article, all the incidents/stories/pictures/scenes/documentary seen there came alive in my mind. I salute to this great patriotic warrior and many thanks to you for putting such explanations to citizens ready hand without them visiting to important historic places. I wish the younger generation to know such patriotism. God Bless you.

    1. That is why i have started this blog, i want our young generation to know about these great warriors.

  21. Great article. I thank you for such a informative attempt. My recent visit to Udaipur and Rana Pratap Museum/Haldighati came alive before my mind after reading above facts. I regularly watch "Bharat ka veer putra - Rana Pratap" TV serial on Sony channel. I salute to this great patriotic warrior. I wish younger generation to know such patriotism. Once again thanks to you - God bless you.

  22. really u done a good job...keep it up....

  23. I am impressed, you have really done great work and made me feel proud to be an Indian

  24. Thank You , Great Information

  25. Nice work bro... and I also love to watch maharana pratap on sony tv... feel realy proud..

  26. Well done buddy for all ur reseach. MAHARANA PRATAP is true son of my country BHARAT. A perfect meaning of a RAJPUT= RAJ (soil)+ PUT (son) son of soil. Jai BHARAT, Jai MEWAR, Jai MAHARANA PRATAP. ................... Krishan Pratap singh.

  27. I read more about mughals and ghaznis and only briefs on our indian patriots during my schools days. think would have been a better person than iam now if it was opposite......... why was our history taught to appease than being a white paper!!...

  28. truely a great heart touching story of MAHARANA PRATAP.... i wonder that haw can a man love his state as PRATAP did..... amazing and a salute to the PATRIOTIC PRATAP....!!!!

  29. Gaurav Shrivastava14 November 2013 at 10:29

    An awesome reflection of the life of maharana ji. Thanks a lot to the people behind this article. Keep posting, we want more about maharana .

  30. Thank you for the info. I to bow my head before this great ruler , my favourite in fact due to his rule of honour before life . He was truly Eklingji's avatar protecting Mewar.

  31. I'm still not sure if you have got the part right where you said Jagmaal was the first favorite of the king

  32. wonderfully comprehensive, reliable post, thanks a lot

  33. Are u sure about his wife's name because some sites show different name instead of maharani Ajabde.
    and u r providing wonderful info. thnx for it

  34. very nice info thanks but can u please kindly tell abt Maharana Pratap's wives especially his favourite wifes Ajabde and Phool kanwar or Phool bai rathore not much info abt Phool Kanwar is available anywhere she was the mother of his second son and another son but what else and can u tell at what age Ajabde died ?

  35. Can you please tell me about Maharana Pratap's sons !

  36. please give info about maharana's life history from 1940-1970


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