Monday, 29 July 2013

Bhagat Singh - The Brave Son Of India


Born: September 28, 1907
Martyrdom: March 23, 1931

Bhagat Singh
A Brief Introduction:

Bhagat Singh was one of the greatest freedom fighter of India. He is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat singh, In Indian language the meaning of the word "Saheed" is "martyr".  He gave a new direction to revolutionary movement in India, also he formed 'Naujavan Bharat Sabha' to spread the message of revolution in Punjab and to encourage every young Indian to fight for their freedom from British rule.
Bhagat Singh - The Brave Son Of India
He also joined the "Hindustan Republican Association" and became one of its most prominent leader. Later the name of the organization was changed to "Hindustan Socialist Republican Association" at Bhagat Singh's insistence in 1928. He assassinated police official Saunders to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Bhagat singh was also known for the Central Legislative Assembly bombing case where Bhagat Singh along with Batukeshwar Dutt dropped the bombs and leaflets in Central Legislative Assembly. He also fought for the rights of Indian Political Prisoners where he underwent a 116 day fast in jail.

Early Life:

Bhagat Singh as Child
Bhagat Singh was born in a sikh family at village Banga in the Lyallpur district of Punjab on September 28,1907. His parents were Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati. Bhagat Singh was the second of the five children(four sons and a daughter ) of Kishan Sing. Bhagat Singh was active in revolutionary struggle from an early age. Since his father and uncles were also revolutionaries and therefore patriotism flowed in his blood.

Bhagat Singh completed his primary education at his village school in Banga, After that he was enrolled in the Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School where he came in to contact with some well-known political leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Ras Behari Bose.

In 1919, when Bhagat Singh was only 12 years old, Jalianwala Bagh massacre took place and few days after the massacre he visited the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, where Dyre ordered his fifty riflemen to open fire on innocent unarmed people who were gathered there for a public meeting a few days earlier, killing thousands of people ( including men,women and children). This incident has a great impact on Bhagat Singh and then on Mahatma Gandhi's call for Non- Cooperation Movement in 1920, Bhagat Singh left his school and actively participated in the movement.
Photos of Saheed Bhagat Singh

In 1922, when Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation movement against violence at Chauri-chaura in Gorakhpur, Bhagat Singh was greatly disappointed and his faith in non violence was weakened and he came to the conclusion that armed revolution was the only practical way of winning freedom.

In 1923, Bhagat Singh joined the National College in Lahore to complete his graduation, where he not only excelled academically but was also involved in extra-curricular activities such as the dramatics society. And due these involvements in extracurricular activities he was fluent in five different languages.Also during his college days he came into contact with some other great revolutionaries such as Bhagwati Charan, Sukhdev thapar and others.

When Bhagat Singh was pursuing his B.A. his parents planned to have him married and to avoid getting married, Bhagat Singh ran away from his house to Kanpur. In a letter he left behind, he stated:

My life has been dedicated to the noblest cause, that of the freedom of the country. Therefore, there is no rest or worldly desire that can lure me now ..

Lala Lajpat Rai's Death:

In 1928, the British government set up a Commission generally called as Simon Commision, headed by Sir John Simon, to report on the political situation in India. The Indian political parties boycotted the Commission, because it did not include a single Indian in its membership, and it met with country-wide protests.

When the Commission visited Lahore on 30 October 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai led a non-violent protest against the Commission in a silent march, but the police responded with violence. The superintendent of police, James A. Scott, ordered the police to lathi charge the protesters and personally assaulted Rai, who was grievously injured, later on Rai could not recover from the injury and died on 17 November 1928.

Murder Of J.P.Saunders:
Bhagat Singh and Rajguru Killing J.P. Saunders
Picture Showing Bhagat Singh, Rajguru others killing J.P.Saunders.
After the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh Decided to take the revenge of Lala ji's death and for this he joined other revolutionaries, Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar and Chandrashekhar Azad.

Pamphlet by HSRA after Saunder's murder, signed by Balraj, the pseudo name for Chandrashekhar Azad.
Bhagat Singh and other revolutionaries created a plan to kill the superintendent of police, James A. Scott who was responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai but on the planned day, 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh and Rajguru shot down Assistant Superintendent of Police Saunders instead, mistaking him for Scott.To avoid death punishment Bhagat Singh and Rajguru escaped from Lahore with the help of Sukhdev Thapar and Durgawati Devi (often called as Durga Bhabhi).

Assembly Bombing Case:

Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throwing bombs in Central Assembly Hall
A picture showing Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throwing bombs in the Central Assembly Hall.
On 8 April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw two bombs inside the Central Assembly Hall while assembly was in session. The bomb was not meant to kill or injure anyone and therefore it was thrown away from the crowded place.The smoke from the bomb filled the Hall and they shouted slogans of "Inquilab Zindabad!" ( which means "Long Live the Revolution!") and showered leaflets.

The leaflet claimed that the act was done to oppose the Trade Disputes and the Public Safety Bill being presented in the Central Assembly and the death of Lala Lajapath Rai. Bhagat Singh and Dutt claimed that the act was intentional and instead of running away from the scene they deliberately courted arrest.

Trial:
Wooden Gavel
During the trial Bhagat Singh along with other revolutionaries found responsible for the Assembly bombing case and murder of Assistant Superintendent of Police ,J.P.Saunders. On 7 October 1930, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev were charged with the murder and sentenced to death while other revolutionaries were sentenced to rigorous lifetime imprisonment.

Also during this trial session Bhagat Singh used the court as a tool to publicize his cause—"the independence of India".

Hunger Strike:

When Bhagat Singh was in jail, he found that the British authorities were following a dual policy in treating the European and Indian Political prisoners. The criminals of foreign origin were treated better than Indian political prisoners. As a protest, he along with some fellow prisoners underwent a 116 day hunger strike until their demands were accepted  by British authorities.

Martyrdom:

The Tribune reporting Bhagat Singh's execution
Front page of The Tribune announcing Bhagat Singh's execution.
On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev. The three martyrs were secretly cremated at Hussainiwala on banks of Sutlej river.

Memorials:
Statue of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev at the India-Pakistan Border near Hussainiwala
Statues of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev at the India-Pakistan Border near Hussainiwala.
The National Martyrs Memorial built at Hussainiwala in memory of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.
The National Martyrs Memorial built at Hussainiwala in memory of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.

2 comments:

  1. Hello Amit

    Bhagat Singh was a National Hero and above all Religion and he is remembered now also as a legendary and a source of inspiration. Very Well written blog post.

    Regards
    Siddhartha Sinha

    ReplyDelete